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Home >> Patients >> Glossary


By Dr Mihai Negrusoiu, MD, Bucharest, Romania

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W

A-C Joint - Acromioclavicular joint; joint of the shoulder where acromion process (of the scapula) and the distal end of the clavicle meet.

Abduct - Movement of any limb away from the body; to draw away from the midline; opposite of adduct.

Abduction - The act of drawing away from the midline; opposite of adduction.

Abductor - A muscle performing the function of abduction.

Abrasion - An injury that rubs off the surface of the skin.

Abscess - An infection that produces pus; can be the result of a blister, callus, penetrating wound or laceration.

Acetabulum - A large cup-shaped cavity (socket) on the lateral side of the pelvis in which the head of the femur articulates

Achilles Tendon - The tendon at the back of the heel connecting the calf muscles to the heel bone.

Achilles tendonitis - Inflammation of the Achilles tendon, particularly the peritendon. It may be predisposed to this type of condition because of biomechanical, muscular, training and footwear factors.

Acromium - Bony process of the scapula that forms the point of the shoulder.

Acute - Severe and/or short duration; used in speaking of duration and severity of disease.

Adduct - Movement of any limb toward the body; to draw toward the midline; opposite of abduct.

Adduction - The act of drawing toward the midline; opposite abduction.

Adductor - A muscle that moves an extremity or part of it toward the median axis of the body.

Adhesion - Abnormal adherence of collagen fibers to surrounding structures which restricts normal elasticity of these or motion of a joint. Can occur during immobilization following trauma or as a complication of surgery.

Aerobic - Exercise in which energy needed is supplied by oxygen inspired.

Allograft - A graft (occasionally ligament, tendon or bone) taken from a human being and implanted in another.

Ambulate - To walk.

Amphiarthrosis - A joint with little movement and no joint cavity.

Amputation - Surgical or traumatic cutting off of a limb or part of a limb.

Anabolic Steroids - Human testosterone, or a testosterone-like steroid hormone, that stimulates growth of muscles and bone and increases muscular strength.

Anaerobic - Exercise without the use of oxygen as an energy source; e.g. sprinting

Ankylosis - The fusion of a joint; blocks any movement of the joint.

Anterior - In front of; the front surface.

Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) - An internal ligament of the knee joint originating from the lateral femoral condyle and inserting into the tibia at the anterior tibial spine. It is composed of two bundles called the anterior medial bundle and the posterior medial bundle. It provides stability of the knee joint in keeping the lower leg from coming forward. Very frequently injured during twisting type sports (football, soccer, basketball, skiing), or those that involve rapid deceleration.

Anterior Compartment Syndrome - acute and severe condition in which swelling within the anterior compartment of the lower leg between the fascia, the interosseous membrane and the bone  (comprising of muscles, nerves and arteries to the foot) jeopardizes the viability of the muscles and nerves within the compartment. Untreated it can lead to amputation.

Anteroposterior - Referring to a front-to-back direction when viewed from a frontal position. Also referred to as A/P.

Anteversion - A forward turning; opposite of retroversion.

Anti-Inflammatory - An agent that prevents inflammation. Can be local (as ice) or systemic (see NSAIDs)

Arteriogram - X-ray film showing arteries after injection of opaque medium.

Apprehension test - A test that places the joint in a position that would simulate subluxation or dislocation, with the degree of "positivity" being judged by the level of "apprehension" on the patient's face.

Arthritis - Inflammation of a joint.

Arthrodesis - Surgical fixation of a joint.

Arthrotomy - Cutting into a joint.

Arthrogram - X-ray technique for joints using air and/or dye injected in affected area (to show structural disorders within the joint; i.e. torn cartilage).

Arthroscope - An optical instrument used for visualization of the interior of a joint cavity.

Arthroscopy - Examination of the internal structures of a joint by inserting an optical apparatus (arthroscope) into the joint. Also surgical procedures (partial meniscectomy, ACL reconstruction, rotator cuff tears repair) can be performed. Now used preferentially to "open" procedures, when permitted.

Aspiration - The withdrawal of fluids from a body cavity by means of suction.

Asymptomatic - Without symptoms.

Atrophy - To shrink from disuse, as in muscular atrophy.

Autograft - A graft (occasionally ligament, tendon or bone) taken from a patient and reimplanted in another part of his/her own body.

Avascular Necrosis - particularly death of bone through lack of blood supply; most frequently occurs in the femoral head, due to different conditions (cortisone, alcohol abuse, trauma) or unknown cause (idiopathic).

Avulsion - A tearing away forcibly of a part or structure.

Axilla - The armpit.

Baker's Cyst - inflammation of the gastrocnemius bursa; usually produces localized swelling behind the knee; indicates that there is trauma inside the knee joint that leads to excessive joint-fluid production.

Bankart lesion - An anterior pouch that is formed when the humeral head dislocates anteriorly, and remains following reduction, leaving a deficit in the anterior restraining mechanisms.

Bennett's Fracture - Fracture dislocation of the base of the first metacarpal (or the thumb).

Biceps - Muscle on the front of the upper arm responsible for bending the elbow.

Bilateral - Occurring on both sides of a midline point or pertaining to both sides of the body (ex. bilateral knee arthritis means having both knees affected)

Bone Scan - "Radionuclide Imaging," by injecting a radioactive isotope that concentrates in the hyperactive areas of the bone, showing tumors, inflammatory conditions or infection.

Bone Resorption - A common result of stress shielding, where bone located in an area that is shielded from stress is absorbed by the surrounding bone that is under stress. Also called Stress Relief Osteoporosis.  

Brachial Plexus - Network of nerves originating from the cervical vertebrae running down into the arm.

Bruise - A discoloration of the skin due to an extravasation of the blood into the underlying tissues.

Bucket handle tear - type of tear of the meniscus of the knee joint, usually medial. It extends along the length of the meniscus, within the body of the meniscus. This tear allows for the internal portion of the torn meniscus to slip into the joint. A common cause of a "locked" knee.

Burner - Common term for brachial plexus trauma in the neck. Usually results in burning or tingling sensation into the shoulder or arm when the neck is forced beyond the normal range of motion.

Bursa - A fluid filled sac, usually located at areas of friction e.g. between tendon and bone.

Bursitis - Inflammation of the bursa, usually caused by overuse or direct trauma.

CPR - Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation; re-establishment of circulation of the blood and movement of air into the lungs in a pulseless, non-breathing person by manual (cardiac massage, mouth-to-mouth breathing) or assisted means (electric defibrillation, oro-tracheal intubation and venting).

Calcaneus - The heel bone

Calcaneal spur - Also called calcaneal enthesiopathy, where there is repetitive microtrauma at the attachment of the Achilles tendon resulting in the formation of a spur, extending from the calcaneum into the tendon.

Cancellous Bone - Spongy bone composed of bony traveculae and bone marrow within the inerspace found in the enlarged ends of long bone or within the flat bones.

Capsule - An enclosing fibrous structure that surrounds the joint.

Cast - Plaster or fiberglass casing that keep the broken ends of a bone in proper position while they heal.  

Cartilage - Smooth, slippery tissue that covers the ends of bones and allows the distribution of compressive loads over the cross section of bones, as well as providing a near frictionless and wear resistant surface for joint movement.

CT Scan (Computerized Tomography) - Use of computed radiographic equipment to get a cross sectional image of an anatomical area. It is also referred to as a CAT scan.

Cellulits - Inflammation of cellular or connective tissue.

Charley Horse - A bruise to the quadriceps resulting from a direct blow to the front of the thigh, characterized by intramuscularly bleeding.

Chondral Fracture - Fracture to the chondral (cartilaginous) surfaces of bone within a joint.

Chondromalacia - A disorder characterized by softening of the cartilage surface resulting in its rapid destruction and pain during motion and weight bearing.

Clavicle - The collarbone.

Coccyx - Last, lowest portion of vertebral column (tailbone).

Collagen - A substance existing in the tissues of the body, including skin, cartilage, ligaments and bone.

Collateral Ligaments - The strong stabilizing ligaments located on both the medial and lateral sides of the knee and elbow.

Comminuted Fracture - One in which there are several definite disruptions in the bone, creating two or more fragments.

Concentric Muscle Contraction - An overall shorting of the muscle as it generates tension and contracts.

Concussion - Injury of the brain resulting in dysfunction. Can be graded mild, moderate or severe depending on loss of consciousness, amnesia and loss of equilibrium.

Condyle - A rounded projection on the end of a bone, which forms an articulation with another bone.

Congenital - Existing before birth; to be born with.

Contracture - Abnormal shortening of muscle tissue, rendering the muscles highly resistant to stretching.

Contusion - An injury caused by a blow from a blunt object.

Cortisone - a synthetic human cortisone hormone-like drug; very efficient anti-inflammatory medication.

Costochondral - The cartilage that separates the bones within the rib cage.

Cranium - The bony framework of the head composed of 8 cranial bones, 14 bones of the face and the teeth.

Cruciate Ligaments - Two strong stabilizing ligaments that cross between the condyles of the knee. The anterior cruciate ligament runs from the back of the femur to the front of the tibia. The posterior cruciate ligament runs from the front of the femur to the back of the tibia.

Degenerative Joint Disease - Destructive changes in the joint surfaces.

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) - Blockage of the deep veins, particularly common in the calf. Often mistaken for calf strain, the DVT is characterized by sharp pain in the calf, swelling, worsening with foot dependency and relief with elevation, tenderness.

Dehydration - Loss of body water.

Delayed Union - An abnormal lag in the reunion of fractured parts of a bone.

Deltoid - Muscle around the shoulder.

Dislocation - Complete displacement of two bones from their normal location in a joint.

Distal - Away from.

Distraction - A type of dislocation in which the bones of a joint have been separated without damage to their ligament.

Dorsal - Pertaining to the back of the body. Posterior.

Ecchymosis - Bleeding into the surface tissue below the skin, resulting in a "black and blue" effect.

Ectomy - Suffix connoting the affected part (e. g.meniscectomy, appendectomy).

Edema - Accumulation of fluid in organs and tissues of the body (swelling).

Efferent - Away from, pushing out from the center.

Effusion - Accumulation of fluid, in various spaces in the body (i.e. an articulation after trauma).

Electrolyte - Ionized particles in blood, tissue fluids and cells including salts of sodium, potassium and chlorine.  

Epicondylitis - Inflammation in the elbow due to overuse of either the flexor or extensor muscles attaching to the medial or lateral epicondyle of the humerus. (tennis elbow, golfer's elbow)

Epiphysis - Pertaining to the end of long bones, usually wider than the shaft.

Etiology - Study of the causes of injury and disease.

Eversion - Turning outward.

Extension - the act of straightening a limb.

Extensor - A muscle that by contracting straightens a limb.

External Rotation - Lateral movement of a joint or extremity to the outside.

Fascia - A sheet of fibrous tissue that envelops the body beneath the skin, and encloses the muscles and groups of muscles, and separates their several layers or groups.

Femur - Thighbone.

Femoral Head - The "ball" portion of the hip joint, located at the proximal end of the femur.

Fibula - The smaller of the two bones in the lower leg, located to the outside.

Flexibility - The ability of muscle to relax and yield to stretch force.

Flexion - The act of flexing or bending a joint so that the bones forming it are brought toward each other.  

Flexor - A muscle that upon contraction flexes or bends a limb.

Fracture - Breach in continuity of a bone. Types of fractures include simple, compound, comminuted, greenstick, incomplete, impacted, longitudinal, oblique, stress or transverse.

Fracture Callus - An unorganized meshwork of woven bone developed on the pattern of the original fibrin clot, which is formed following fracture of a bone.

Gamekeeper's Thumb - Tear of the ulnar collateral ligament of the metacarpo-phangeal joint of the thumb.

Glenohumeral - The shoulder articulation, containing the glenoid, the humeral head and the labrum.

Glenoid - A cavity of the scapula into which the head of the humerus fits to the form of the shoulder joint (the shoulder socket).

Groin - Junction of the thigh and abdomen.

Haemarthrosis - Bleeding within a joint. If swelling of a joint occurs quickly (i.e. within 3 - 4 hours) it is probably an haemarthrosis and, in the knee, in 75% of all cases indicates an ACL injury.

Hamstring - Muscles running from the pelvis to the tibia, overlapping two joints. Often injured as a result of improper conditioning or lack of muscle flexibility. Responsible for flexing the knee joint and involved in maintaining the upright posture.

Heat cramps - Painful muscle spasms of arms or legs, likely caused by depletion of fluids and electrolytes

Heat exhaustion - Mild form of shock caused by loss of fluid and electrolytes from the circulation because of excessive sweating when exposed to heat.

Heat stroke - Condition of rapidly rising internal body temperature that overwhelms the body's mechanisms for release of heat.

Hematoma - A tumor-like mass produced by an accumulation of blood.

Hill-Sachs lesion - Following anterior dislocation of the shoulder, the head of the humerus can sustain a compression fracture. This consequent depression of the humeral head is known as a Hill-Sachs lesion.

Housemaid's knee - Inflammation of the superficial infrapatellar bursa.

Humerus - Bone of the upper arm.

Hyperextension - Extreme extension, or straightening of a limb or body part.

Hyperplasia - Increase in size of a tissue or organ due to an increase in the number of cells.

Hypertrophy - Increase in the size of a tissue or organ due to an increase in the size of its constituent cells.

Iliotibial Band - A thick, wide fascial layer from the iliac crest to the knee joint. It contributes to the lateral stabilization of the knee.

Iliotibial band friction syndrome - Pain over the lateral compartment of the knee where the iliotibial band passes over the femoral condyle. Usually brought on by running.

Immobilization - Prevention of movement, presumably to allow for natural healing to take place. Side effects include disuse atrophy, deconditioning of muscles and stiffness.

Impingement Syndrome - Pinching together of the supraspinatus muscle and other soft tissue in the shoulder, which is common in throwing.

Inferior - Lower, beneath, toward the bottom.

Infrapatellar Ligament - A ligament located directly below the patella.

Intercondylar Notch - An indentation between the two condyles of the distal femur.

Interosseous Membrane - Uniting membrane between the tibia and fibula in the lower leg or the radius and ulna in the forearm that forms a collagenous fibrous tissue.

Intervertebral disc - The disc forms a cartilaginous joint between the vertebral bodies, providing extremely efficient shock absorption. Is the most commonly damaged structure, being the most common cause of lumbar spine disorders.

Intramedullary - Within the medullary, or narrow, cancellous canal region of a long bone.

Intramedullary Canal - The marrow cavity of a bone.

Isokinetic Exercise - A form of active resistive exercise in which the speed of movement of the limb is controlled by a pre-set rate-limiting device.

Isometric (static) contraction - A muscle contraction in which tension is developed but no mechanical work is done. There is no appreciable joint movement and the overall length of the muscle remains the same.

Isotonic (dynamic) contraction - A concentric or eccentric muscular contraction that results in movement of a joint or body part (lifting a free weight).

Itis - Suffix connoting inflammation (e.g. tendinitis, bursitis).

Joint mobilization - Passive traction and/or gliding movements applied to joint surfaces that maintain or restore the normal joint range of motion.

Jumper's knee - Small area of degeneration at the tendon attachment at the lower pole of the patella, characterized by pain and extreme local tenderness. Often associated with activities that require jumping off one leg e.g. high jumpers.

Kyphosis - An abnormal condition (curvature) of the spine; hunch-backed.

Lachman's test - Drawing forward of the tibia, relative to the femur, in 10 - 20° of knee flexion. A test for ACL disruption.

Laser therapy - Use of low powered lasers, for treatment of pain, swelling, inflammation and promotion of healing.

Lateral - To the outside of the body.

Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL) - Ligament of knee attaching lateral femoral condyle to the fibula head. It provides lateral stability to the knee.

Ligament - A tough band of white fibrous connective tissue that links two bones together at a joint.

Lordosis - Abnormal anterior convexity of the lumbar spine.

Lumbosacral - Region of low back comprised of lumbar and sacral spine.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Provides highly detailed pictures of the body's interior, using magnetic fields. It is especially useful in athletic injuries to visualize soft tissues such as ligaments and tendons.

Malleolus - Rounded projection on either side of the ankle joint.

Malunion - Growth of fractured bone fragments in a faulty position, forming an imperfect union.

Manipulation - A passive movement using physiological or accessory motion, which may be applied with a thrust or when the patient is under anesthesia.  

Medial - Pertaining to or near the middle.

Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) - Ligament of knee attaching to medial femoral condyle and to medial tibia. It provides medial stability to the knee.

Mediolateral - Referring to a right-to left or left-to right direction when viewed from a frontal position. Also referred to as M/L.

Meniscus - fibrocartilaginous structure that function as "washers" - to deepen the joint surfaces, shock absorber, assist in joint lubrication and provide joint stabilisation.

Meniscectomy - An intra-articular procedure at the knee by which the damaged part of a  meniscus is surgically removed. It is done arthroscopically.

Metacarpals - Five long bones of hand, just below the fingers.

Metatarsals - Five long bones of foot, just below the toes.

Mobilization - Passive stretching movements performed by a therapist at a speed slow enough that a patient can stop the movement.

Myositis - Inflammation of a muscle.

Myositis Ossificans - Inflammation in muscle resulting in the formation of bone-like substance.

Necrosis - The death of some or all of the cells in an organ or tissue, caused by disease, physical or chemical injury, or interference with the blood supply.

Neuritis - Inflammation of a nerve.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) - Medication which produces antipyretic, analgesic and, most importantly, anti-inflammatory effects. They act by modifying the complex chemical process that mediates inflammation in musculoskeletal conditions.

Nonunion - Failure of fractured bone to heal.

Orthotic - Any device applied to or around the body in the care of physical impairment or disability, commonly used to control body mechanics.

Osgood-Schlatter's disease - epiphysitis of the tibial tubercle, occurring in adolescents. Usually manifests itself as pain on direct pressure and contraction of the quadriceps e.g. landing on the leg, squatting or climbing stairs.

Osteochondritis Dissecans - A degenerative process to the articular cartilage by which a separation of the articular cartilage from the sub-chondral bone occurs.

Osteomyelitis - An inflammatory disease of bone caused usually by infection with streptococcus or staphylococcus.

Osteophyte - An abnormal bony outgrowth.

Osteoporosis - the total amount of bone is reduced, with the bone present being normal but less dense. Common cause of fractures, particularly crush fractures of the spine and neck of femur fractures.

Paresthesia - Sensation of numbness or tingling, indicating nerve irritation.

Patella (kneecap) - A sesamoid bone (a bone contained within a tendon) that essentially acts as a "pulley mechanism" to complete the patello-femoral joint.

Patellar Tendon - The tendon that attaches the patella to the tibia.

Patellar Tendinitis - Inflammation of the patellar tendon.

Pathology - Study of the nature and cause of disease.

Pectorals - Chest muscles beneath breast, leading up to shoulder.

Peroneal - Muscles of the lateral lower leg responsible for everting the foot.

Phlebitis - Inflammation of a vein.

Plantar - Pertaining to the sole of the foot.

Plantar Fascia - The tight band of muscle and connective tissue beneath the arch of the foot.

Plica - A fold of tissue in the joint capsule and a common result of knee injury.

Posterior - At the back part, or rear of the body.

Posterior Cruciate Ligament - An internal ligament of the knee joint originating from the medial femoral condyle and inserting into the notch of the posterior tibia. Function: stabilizes the tibia on the femur

Pronation - Moving of the forearm into a palm down position.

Proximal - Near the source, nearest any point being described.

Pseudarthrosis - A false joint developing between the bone fragments after a fracture that has not united.

Quadriceps (Quads) - The four powerful muscles in the front of the thigh, responsible for extending the knee joint.

Radiography - Taking of x-rays.

Radiolucent - Permitting the passage of x-rays.

Radio-opaque - Not permitting the passage of x-rays.

Radius - Forearm bone on thumb side.

Range of Motion (ROM) - The arc created by the flexion of a limb at the joint, usually expressed by degrees.

Reconstruction - Surgical rebuilding of an injured joint.

Reduction - The restoration of a dislocated part of the body to its normal position.

Referred Pain - Pain felt in undamaged area of body away from actual injury.  

Resect - To cut off, or cut out, a portion of a structure or organ.

Retraction - The moving of tissue to expose a part or structure of the body.

R.I.C.E. - Abbreviation for Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation. Acute injury management, to prevent inflammatory processes to go uncontrolled and to speed up the recovery process by eliminating swelling.

Rotator Cuff - Comprised of four muscles in the shoulder area: supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis. Their insertional tendons converge to form a "cuff" over the shoulder joint, on their way to attaching from the scapula to the humerus. Often irritated by overuse.

S-C Joint - Sternoclavicular joint; articulation between the sternum and the clavicle.

Sacroiliac - Relating to the juncture of the hip bone and lower part of the spine.

Scan - Injection of radioactive fluid (equal in radioactivity to about one x-ray) that may then be displayed on a computer/monitor or film (e.g. bone scan).

Scapula - The shoulder blade.

Sciatic Nerve - Largest nerve in body located in back of leg that controls most of its function.

Scoliosis - Lateral abnormal curvature of the spine.

Segmental Fracture - Divides a long bone into more than two roughly cylindrical segments (also a specific type of comminuted fracture).

Sesamoid Bones - Lies within and adds strength to tendons as they cover bony surface. The patella is the biggest sesamoid bone.  

Shoulder Separation - Refers to a sprain of the A-C joint where the tip of the clavicle may be elevated from its normal position of attachment on the acromion process.

Soft Tissue - Any of the tissues other than bone that surround or are within the joint, including muscles, tendons, ligaments, etc.  

Spasm - Sudden, violent, involuntary contraction of a muscle.

Spondylitis - Inflammation of one or more vertebrae.

Spondylolisthesis - Forward displacement of the fifth lumbar vertebra.

Spondylosis - Abnormal vertebral fixation or immobility.

Sprain - A joint injury. A violent twisting, stretching or pulling of a ligament or/and articular capsule.

Sprain (1st Degree) - A stretching but no tear of a ligament. Athlete may be able to continue to play or usually return to play in a few days.

Sprain (2nd Degree) - A partial tear of a ligament. Bracing may be required. Athlete will usually miss one to four weeks.

Sprain (3rd Degree) - A complete tear of a ligament. Depending upon ligament involved, bracing or even surgery may be required. Athlete is usually out from three weeks up to 12 months depending upon course of treatment.  

Strain - A muscle injury. The stretching, pulling or twisting of a muscle or tendon.

Strain (1st Degree) - A stretching but no tear of a muscle or tendon. Athlete may be able to continue to play or usually return to play in a few days.

Strain (2nd Degree) - A partial tear of a muscle or tendon. Athlete will usually miss one to four weeks.

Strain (3rd Degree) - A complete tear of a muscle or tendon. Depending upon muscle or tendon involved, surgery may be required. Athlete is usually out from six weeks up to six months.

Stress X-Ray - A continual x-ray taken when a joint is stressed to its maximum to see if the ligaments are intact.

Stress Fracture - A hair-line type of break in bone caused by overuse.

Stretching - Any therapeutic maneuver designed to lengthen (elongate) pathologically shortened soft-tissue structures and thereby increase range of motion.

Subchondral - Bone underneath the cartilage surface.

Subluxation - A partial dislocation of a joint, so that the bone ends are misaligned but still in contact.

Superior - Situated or directed above.

Supine - Lying flat on the back.

Supination - Moving the forearm into a palm-up position.

Syndesmosis - A union of bones by means of a ligament or membrane.

Synovial Membrane - A thin tissue that lines the capsule surrounding the joint

Synovial Fluid - Lubricating fluid for joints and tendons, produced in synovium.

Talus - The ankle bone that articulates with the tibia and fibula.

Tarsus - Arch of foot.

Tendon -A tough band of fibrous connective tissue that links a muscle to a bone.

Tendinitis - Inflammation of the tendon and/or tendon sheath, often caused by chronic overuse and/or sudden injury.

Tennis Elbow - Inflammation of the tendons that attach the muscles of the forearm to the lateral distal end of the humerus.

Tenosynovitis - May follow trauma, overuse or inflammatory conditions. There is complaint of pain, swelling and/or restricted movements. The swelling has a linear appearance, along the tendons.

Tibia - Larger of the two bones in lower leg; weight-bearing bone.

Tibial Plateau -The upper end of the tibia capped with articular cartilage, articulating with the femur, making up the lower half of the knee joint.

Tibial Spine -A projection on the top surface of some tibial components between the two halves of the tibial plateau.

Tibial Tubercle (Tuberosity) - A rounded eminence at the upper end of the anterior tibia.

Trabecular - A type of mature bone commonly found at the ends of bones, it is composed of a latticework of bony plates and columns. Its structure gives trabecular bone a great deal of strength despite having less bony material than cortical bone.  

Trapezius - A flat triangular muscle covering the posterior surface of the neck and shoulder.

Triceps - Muscle of the posterior upper arm, opposite the biceps, that extends the elbow.

Trochanter -Either of the two processes below the neck of the femur. The greater trochanter is a broad, flat process at the upper and lateral surface of the femur to which several muscles are attached. The lesser trochanter is a short conical process projecting medially from the base of the neck of the femur.

Trochanteric bursitis - inflammation of the bursae overlying the greater trochanter of the femur. It is an overuse injury, predominantly seen in runners.

Tuberosity -A large rounded eminence on a bone.

Turf Toe - Sprain of the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint of the great toe.

Turf Burn - Abrasion resulting from contact with artificial turf in which one or more layers of skin are removed.

Ulna - One of two bones in forearm; extends from point of elbow and found on outer (little finger) side.

Ulnar Nerve - Nerve in the elbow commonly irritated from excessive throwing or repeated trauma.

Valgus - Deformity in bone, such as when the knees are close together (knock-knee), with the ankle space increased. Bent outward.

Varus - Deformity in bone, such as when knees are bowed out, and the ankles are close in. Turned inward.

Volar - Pertaining to the palm

Wrist - The junction between the two forearm bones (radius and ulna) and the eight wrist bones (trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate, pisiform, triquetral, lunate and scaphoid).



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